NO TO REDD | An Alternative: Bolivia’s Joint Mitigation and Adaptation Mechanism Proposal
T he State of Bolivia’s “Proposal for the Development of the Joint Mitigation and Adaptation Mechanism for the Integral and Sustainable Management of Forests” was presented to the UNFCCC in August of 2012.
The proposal: JOINT-MITIGATION-2 [pdf file 1.5 MB].
[Document presented to the UNFCC: submission_bolivia_redd]
The proposal further strengthens the foundation established by the World People’s Conference on Climate Change and Rights of Mother Earth. The People’s Agreement rejects REDD as a carbon trading mechanism:
We condemn market mechanisms such as REDD (Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation) and its versions + and + +, which are violating the sovereignty of peoples and their right to prior free and informed consent as well as the sovereignty of national States, the customs of Peoples, and the Rights of Nature.
Bolivia’s first Indigenous president, Evo Morales, issued a statement stating that, “The nature, forest and indigenous peoples are not for sale” in September of 2011.
The State of Bolivia stood alone in rejecting the Cancun Agreement (COP17), opposing :”the process of mercantilism of environmental functions, including the REDD+”. In 2011, Bolivia carried out “extensive consultations with social organizations and community members regarding the construction of an alternative to REDD+”. The result was a proposal for “The Sustainable Life of the Forest”, which the Bolivian delegation presented at COP17 held in Durban, Africa. The proposal was based on the following principles:
- No mercantilism of the environmental functions of the forest.
- Comprehensive and Sustainable Management of the forest (including land, water and biodiversity) with emphasis on traditional and local practices.
- Promotion of the multiple functions of forest: economic, social, environmental, and cultural.
- Complementarity of rights, obligations and duties for the forest management, emphasizing the rights of indigenous people native peasant and the rights of Mother Earth.
- Recognition of the double role of forest in mitigating and adapting to climate change.
The most recent proposal aims:
“to advance effectively in mitigation and adaptation to climate change through integrated management and the sustainable use of forest and the systems of life of Mother Earth, promoting the conservation and restoration of the life systems, the management, conservation and protection of biodiversity, facilitating the transition to more optimal uses of land through the development of more sustainable productive systems in order to reduce deforestation and forestry degradation.”
ALAI, Latin America in Movement
Bolivia presented the non-market based joint mitigation and adaptation mechanism: The integral and sustainable management of forests
Bolivian delegation in Doha
The struggle to curb forest carbon markets continues in Doha. Bolivia has raised in the sessions of the Working Group on “Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation” the need to take seriously into account the document of Rio + 20 “The future we want” in which it is stated that there are different approaches to achieve sustainable development and the need for developing holistic and integrated approaches taking into account harmony with nature.
Bolivia is proposing at Doha the recognition by the Convention of a “Joint Mitigation and Adaptation Mechanism for the Integral and Sustainable Management of Forests” as a non-market approach to promote reduction of emissions in the context of deforestation and forest degradation, giving continuity to the agreements reached at COP17 in Durban 2011, when a decision for the development of non-market based approaches was achieved.
The Bolivian proposal is oriented to establish a mechanism to promote reduction of deforestation and forest degradation in the context of the sustainable management of forests which is based in the following foundations: the non-commercialization of the environmental functions of forests, the recognition of the multiple and holistic functions of forests, and the strengthening of local forest governance. Instead of promoting ex post payments once reduction of carbon stocks are achieved, the Bolivian proposal calls for ex ante long-term finance not only to achieve mitigation goals but also adaptation needs in order to help local communities and local population to facilitate forest conservation and the transition to better land use through the development of more sustainable production system (linking agriculture and forestry).
Also, Bolivia has submitted to the Secretariat a proposal to incorporate the consideration of the Joint Mitigation and Adaptation Mechanism in the working group of “various approaches to promote mitigation”, calling also for the halt in the implementation of market mechanisms in climate change. Bolivia has suggested that any approach or mechanism oriented to promote mitigation should take into account the following principles: principles of equity and Common but Differentiated Responsibilities of the Convention; sustainable development in harmony and balance with Mother Earth, including ethical responsibility, and change of unsustainable patterns of consumption and production; non-commodification and non-financialization of the environmentally functions of Mother Earth; and conceptual congruity with the basic science of climate change. Since only non-market based approaches are able to meet such principles, those should be promoted as the solution to cope climate change.
(Doha, December 1 2012)
Unidad Madre Tierra y Agua / Ministerio de Relaciones Exteriores, Estado Plurinacional de Bolivia